When deploying the latest Puppet agent using Ruby 2.4.2 on Windows Server 2016 Core, after the first Puppet run something in Puppet becomes corrupted. Subsequent runs will simply output 'Libfacter was not found'. Uninstalling and re-installing the agent will temporarily fix the issue, but any new configurations will break it again.
Downgraded to 5.3.2 with Ruby 2.4.1 and it works reliably.
Here is a puppet-agent package containing Puppet 5.3.3 with Ruby 2.4.1 that can be used for testing. DISCLAIMER: This is an unofficially released, unsigned package to be used for testing purposes only.
Checksums for the package are below